The conventional way of categorizing management is to divide it into operational, middle and top management. Although three types of management are concerned with managing people, completing tasks and dealing with an ever-changing environment, leadership encompasses more than the varying focus of managerial levels. The way in which leaders interact with their followers is also very important. Leadership is shaped by the interaction between the leader or manager as an individual, the characteristics of the co-workers or followers and the characteristics of the situation. Leadership is not a one-way street; rather it develops from the interaction between the individual and followers given a particular situation, influenced by both the internal and external environment of the organization.
In the leadership programs at Nyenrode this perspective has an effect both on task and people leadership and on management because it focuses on individuals with high potential, the business and internal context of the organization in question, the co-workers, and the manner in which these aspects are interrelated. There is, of course, a constant need for managers and leaders to develop. As such, personal development is another important area which the Center for Leadership and Personal Development is particularly interested in.

Personal Development
Leadership development is directly related to personal development. This is why the Center for Leadership and Personal Development gives it the attention it deserves in all its programs. The degree of personal development depends not only on what a person is capable of based on his or her knowledge or skills, but also on what a person wants (motives) and what a person is like (personality). Hence personal development is very much determined by the individual.
An essential part of personal development is enhancing communication skills, which lie at the heart of managerial competencies. The communication skills courses aim to raise participants’ awareness of those areas where they perform effectively and those where they need to increase their effectiveness. The programs cover a variety of skills development including public-speaking practice, dealing with conflict in practice simulations, putting forward and defending a standpoint on a particular issue (argument), dealing with issues in cross-cultural management and negotiating.
The Center also provides tailor-made courses for specific programs. For the MSc in Management program, for example, students are required to write a Master’s thesis.  The Center pays particular attention to the development of academic writing skills in English to facilitate this. Other courses provided by the Center include a Business English course offered as an elective to students following the BSc in Accountancy  program at the Nivra-Nyenrode School of Accountancy and Controlling.
Organizational Development and Change
Although both leadership and personal development focus on the individual, individuals work in organizations. An organization is a group of individuals working together in order to achieve specific collective goals, and is separated from its environment by a specific boundary. In order to understand an organization thoroughly and to be able to make an organization effective, understanding the behavior of the people in the organization is crucial.
The Center studies the organization from a variety of traditional academic fields -  such as (social) psychology, sociology, political science, and economics -  in order to gain an understanding of how the characteristics of individuals, groups, work situations and the organization itself affect the way members act and interact within their organization and how this, in turn, affects the organization's performance as a whole. Besides functionalist perspectives, perspectives related to critical management studies and interpretivism, such as evolution and complexity science, are used to analyze behavior and its dynamics in organizations. This enables students to understand, analyze, describe and even predict what goes on in organizations, and why.
Knowledge of how organizations work may lead to the necessity for change in order to enhance performance. Change management is complex and can be approached from a wide range of theoretical perspectives. Creative and more elaborate change strategies can be designed and implemented by using a clear and specific methodology to analyze organizations (exploration – diagnosis – planning – implementation).
Research is also a key feature of the Center’s activities. The goal here is, of course,  to continue to expand our knowledge regarding leadership, personality and organizational dynamics. However, the knock-on effect is that the knowledge we acquire enables us to fine-tune our courses on all the programs we are involved in. Our researchers are familiar with numerous methodologies. With regard to quantitative data, the Center’s expertise includes reliability analyses,  cluster analyses, and structural equation modeling. The Center also has experienced researchers with expertise in qualitative data analysis methods, such as ethnography, grounded theory, critical methodology and systems analysis. Finally, the Center has specialists in academic writing who are often employed to instruct others or provide revisions of articles. In sum, we can offer a unique combination of robust, scientific research methods together with practical communication skills.
HRM and Nyenrode Education
Human Resources Management has over the past 25 years developed into a strong set of strategies, policies and practices aiming to bring people into the context of high performance as well as performance development. HRM is an established aspect of modern business management, forming an integral part of the education, training and experience of managers. All teaching takes place in a practice-based context in which CHROME faculty and staff closely work together with experienced managers who act as guest lecturers and project supervisors.

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